Система класифікації великих моторних функцій при церебральних паралічах /Gross Motor Function Classification System for Cerepal Palsy (GMFCS)/

Cerebral Palsy Gross Motor Classification System | Cerebral Palsy Guidance

Система класифікації великих моторних функцій при церебральних паралічах /Gross Motor Function Classification System for Cerepal Palsy (GMFCS)/

The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) for those with cerebral palsy is a classification system for different levels of the disorder and is a child’s level of movement. There are currently five levels of GMFCS, with the highest level being the most severe with mobility issues.

GMFCS Level I

Level I is the least severe of all levels, marked by the following:

Prior to 2nd Birthday:

Babies learn to sit on the floor, crawl, hold onto and “cruise” furniture, and hold objects in both hands without assistance.

Between 2nd-4th Birthday:

Children begin to walk without assistance and can sit easily while holding objects in both hands without assistance.

Between 4th-6th Birthday:

Children can sit down and stand up without assistance, sit on the floor and get up without assistance, climb stairs, run, and jump.

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Between 6th-12th Birthday:
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Children can run, jump, climb stairs, and walk without assistance, but may still need help with balance and coordination.

GMFCS Level II

Prior to 2nd Birthday:

Babies rely on their hands or the assistance of others when sitting upright on a floor. Some babies can crawl on their hands and knees or move forward while laying on their belly.

Between 2nd-4th Birthday:

Children still require assistance while sitting upright on the floor, but they may begin to hold themselves up via furniture and walk.

Between 4th-6th Birthday:

Children should be able to sit in a chair without assistance or on the floor without assistance. However, they may need help with walking (aside from short distances), and may need to hold onto to a table or another sturdy object. During this level, children cannot skip, hop around, or jump.

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Between 6th-12th Birthday:
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Children can now walk indoors and outdoors with little to no help. They’ll still need assistance when climbing steps or walking on a floor or road with an inclined surface.

GMFCS Level III

Prior to 2nd Birthday:

Infants need continuous lower back support and assistance in order to sit up, but will be able to move forward while on their bellies.

Between 2nd-4th Birthday:

Crawling is generally the preferred method of moving around during this level, and children typically use their hands and knees to crawl. They can sit up unsupported but will sit in the “W” position with their knees rotated and legs facing backwards.

Between 4th-6th Birthday:

Children can sit with trunk support, lift themselves up while holding onto something sturdy, and can climb stairs with assistance. Walking alone also requires assistance, either from an adult or a mobility assistance device.

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Between 6th-12th Birthday:
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Children are able to walk indoors and outdoors with the assistance of a mobility device. They can also climb stairs using handrails or with the assistance from adults. However, they cannot walk long distance and will require the use of a wheelchair or an adult who can carry them.

GMFCS Level IV

Prior to 2nd Birthday:

Babies can roll back and forth without assistance, but will need adult help to sit up.

Between 2nd-4th Birthday:

Children can now sit up alone, but will need to use their hands and arms to maintain their position. Children will also need adaptive equipment for sitting and standing. At this level, children use crawling as their preferred method of moving around.

Between 4th-6th Birthday:

Children can walk short distances during this level, but should always be monitored as they will have issues with balance and coordination. They will also need trunk support while sitting.

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Mobility generally remains the same during this age group, but once children start school, they’ll generally begin to use mobility assistance, such as wheelchairs, more so than before.

GMFCS Level V

Prior to 2nd Birthday:

Infants’ voluntary control of their limbs are limited and they require assistance in sitting up, rolling over, and holding their head up.

Between 2nd-4th Birthday:

Children continue to have extremely limited mobility. They will need assistance in all areas of movement.

Between 4th-6th Birthday:

Mobility increases during this age group, and children can sit alone in chairs, but will still need assistance from falling over. They will need assistance in all other areas of mobility as well.

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Mobility is still extremely limited, although some children will be able to use an electric wheelchair on their own. Children in this age group will still be dependent upon others for movement.

  • http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-8749.2000.tb00093.x/pdf

Источник: https://www.cerebralpalsyguidance.com/cerebral-palsy/gross-motor-classification-system/

Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) for Cerebral Palsy

Система класифікації великих моторних функцій при церебральних паралічах /Gross Motor Function Classification System for Cerepal Palsy (GMFCS)/

The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) is a multi-level categorization technique that helps to describe varying levels of severity in people with cerebral palsy (CP).

The GMFCS has five levels; the lower levels correspond with milder forms of CP, while the higher levels indicate increased severity. The Gross Motor Function Classification System can be used to describe all types and severity levels of cerebral palsy.

It takes into consideration an individual’s voluntary movements, age, and functional ability under a variety of circumstances.

Classifying Cerebral Palsy with the GMFCS

The GMFCS classifies infants, children, and adolescents with cerebral palsy into five groups three important factors:

  • Gross motor function: As its name implies, the GMFCS uses assessments of gross motor skills to determine how severe a given case of cerebral palsy may be. Gross motor skills require the use of the body’s larger muscles, and include activities standing, walking, running, catching, and throwing. Because cerebral palsy is caused by damage to brain areas necessary for balance, movement, and coordination, gross motor skills are often impaired. This measurement takes into consideration limb control, movement transition, dependence on assistive equipment, and other related factors.
  • Performance: In addition to gross motor skills, the GMFCS considers how independently a person functions in settings home, school, and the community. If a child needs extensive assistance in any or all of these settings, a more severe level of cerebral palsy is often indicated. Note: this measurement assesses how an individual behaves under typical settings (performance), not how he or she would behave under ideal circumstances.
  • Age: The GMFCS also takes into account an individual’s age when assigning a GMFCS level. Different criteria are used for five different age groups: 0 to 2 years, 2 to 4 years, 4 to 6 years, 6 to 12 years, and 12 to 18 years.

For each individual, these factors are combined to generate a general idea regarding the severity of cerebral palsy.

Once these determinations are made, the GMFCS level may help doctors, parents, and other caregivers determine therapy plans, lifestyle adjustments, and rehabilitation potential for the future.

In addition, the GMFCS can be used alongside other classification systems to help provide a more detailed clinical picture.

The Five GMFCS Levels

There are five levels that comprise the GMFCS, increasing in severity from level I to level V. It is important to note that this system is meant as a general guideline and that each case of cerebral palsy is different; because of this, the GMFCS will not completely describe each unique person. Broadly, the five levels are described as follows:

  • Level I – Has functional gross motor skills, though may struggle with speed, balance, and coordination. Moves independently without the aid of adaptive equipment.
  • Level II – Can walk with limitations and may need assistance with inclined or uneven surfaces. Moves without the aid of adaptive equipment.
  • Level III –  Can walk with the use of hand-held adaptive equipment and may need a wheelchair to move on inclined or uneven surfaces, or to travel long distances.
  • Level IV – Is self-mobile only with significant limitations. Many use powered-wheelchairs, require significant help with transfers, and are dependent on adaptive and assistive equipment.
  • Level V – Typically has limitations that impair all voluntary movement and is extremely dependent on adaptive equipment, assistive technology, and other people for mobility.

GMFCS Ages 0 – 2

  • Level I – Infant can move between in and a sitting position, and can floor sit with both hands available to move objects and toys, and can crawl on hands and knees. Can pull themself up into a standing position and take steps while holding onto something (i.e. furniture). An infant between 18 months and 2 years can walk without the help of adaptive equipment.
  • Level II –  Infant can floor sit, but may need hands to maintain balance. Can crawl on hands and knees, and may pull up into a standing position or take steps while holding onto something.
  • Level III – Infant is able to floor sit with lower back support and can roll and crawl.
  • Level IV – Infant has head control, but the entire truck must be supported for floor sitting. Can roll into a supine position (lying face upward on back) and may roll into a prone position (lying face down on stomach).
  • Level V – Infant has physical impairments that limit voluntary movement. Unable to maintain head or trunk control in prone or supine postures. Needs assistance to roll.

GMFCS Ages 2 – 4

  • Level I – Child can floor sit with both hands available to move objects and toys. Child can move between sitting and standing without assistance, and uses walking as the preferred method of mobility without adaptive equipment.
  • Level II – Child can floor sit, but may struggle with balance when both hands are busy manipulating objects. Child can move between sitting and standing without assistance from others, but must pull self into standing position on a stable surface. As the preferred method of mobility, child crawls on hands and knees, moves holding onto furniture, and walks using adaptive equipment.
  • Level III – Child can floor sit by “W-sitting” (sitting between flexed and inwardly rotated hips and knees) and may require assistance to move into a sitting position. Child crawls on hands and knees as the primary method of mobility, may pull themself into a standing position on a stable surface, and move short distances. Child may walk short distances with a hand-held mobility device and may need assistance from others for steering and turning.
  • Level IV – Child can floor sit when placed in a sitting position, but is unable to stay balanced without using hands for support. Child requires equipment for standing and sitting. Self-mobility is possible only through rolling or crawling.
  • Level V – Physical impairments restrict movement control and the ability to maintain an upright position of the head and body. All areas of motor function are limited; sitting and standing abilities are not fully compensated for through the use of adaptive equipment. Child cannot move independently and must be moved by others. Occasionally, child can achieve self-mobility through powered wheelchairs with extensive adaptations.

GMFCS Ages 4 – 6

  • Level I – Child can get into, , and sit in a chair without using hands for support. Child can move from floor to sitting and standing positions without the use of others or objects for balance. Child can walk indoors and outdoors, can climb stairs, and has some ability to run or jump.
  • Level II – Child can sit in a chair with both hands available to move objects. Child can move from the floor to standing and from a chair to sitting to and then standing, but often needs a surface to help with balance. Child walks without mobility devices indoors, for short distances, and on even surfaces outdoors. Child can climb the stairs holding the railing, but cannot run or jump.
  • Level III – Child can sit in a chair, but may require trunk-support to allow hand function. Child can move in and a chair using a surface to pull themself up. Child can walk with hand-held devices on level surfaces, can climb stairs with others’ assistance, and is often transported across long or difficult distances.
  • Level IV – Child needs adaptive seating to sit and allow hand function. Child can move in and a chair with help from others or with a surface to pull themself up. Child may walk short distances with a walker and help from others, but often cannot turn or balance on uneven surfaces. Child is transported in the community, but may achieve self-mobility with a powered wheelchair.
  • Level V – Physical impairments restrict movement control and the ability to maintain an upright position of the head and body. All areas of motor function are limited; sitting and standing abilities are not fully compensated for through the use of adaptive equipment. Child cannot move independently and must be moved by others.

GMFCS Ages 6 – 12

  • Level I – Child can walk at home, school, outdoors, and elsewhere and can walk up and down curbs or stairs without assistance. Child can run or jump, but speed, balance, and coordination are limited. Child may participate in physical activities depending on personal and environmental factors.
  • Level II – Child can walk in most settings but may find it difficult to walk long distances or balance on uneven surfaces, inclines, crowded or confined spaces, or when carrying objects. Child can navigate stairs with use of the railing or a mobility device. Child has at best minimal ability to perform gross motor tasks, and adaptations may be needed to enable ability to perform physical activities.
  • Level III – Child can walk using hand-held mobility devices indoors. When seated, the child may require a seatbelt for balance, and need physical assistance to transfer into a standing position. Child uses wheeled devices to move long distances and needs help and use of railings to move up or down stairs.
  • Level IV – Child uses powered mobility or needs physical assistance to move in most settings. Requires adaptive seating for control and balance and needs help with most transfers. In the home child uses floor mobility (rolling or crawling), and walks with physical assistance or powered mobility equipment. When positioned, child can use a walker at home or school. At school, outdoors, or in the community, child uses a manual or powered wheelchair, and adaptations are needed to enable participation in physical activities.
  • Level V – Child is transported in a manual wheelchair in all settings and is limited in ability to keep head and trunk upright and control arm and leg movements. Assistive technology is needed to improve head alignment, seating, standing, and mobility, but the equipment does not compensate to full function.

GMFCS Ages 12 – 18

  • Level I – Individual can walk at home, school, outdoors, and elsewhere. Is able to walk up and down curbs and railings without any assistance and can run and jump. Speed, balance, and coordination are limited. Individual can participate in physical activities depending on personal and environmental factors.
  • Level II – Individual can walk in most settings, but environmental and personal factors can impact mobility choices. At school or work, individual may use handheld devices for safety. Outdoors and in the community, a wheeled device may be used when moving long distances. Can walk up and down stairs using the railing or with assistance. Limitations in gross motor skills may mean that adaptations are needed to participate in physical activities.
  • Level III – Individual can walk with handheld devices and show variability in modes of mobility depending on physical, environmental, and personal factors. May need a seatbelt for alignment and balance. Transfers require physical assistance from others. At school, the individual may move in a manual wheelchair or with powered mobility. Individual may need assistance walking up and down stairs, or may use the railing. Limitations in walking necessitate adaptations for physical activities.
  • Level IV – Individuals use wheeled mobility in most settings and require adaptive seating for pelvic and trunk control. Physical assistance (often requiring one or two people) is needed for transfers, but may be able to support weight with their legs. Indoors individual may walk short distances with physical assistance, use wheeled mobility, or when positioned, use a walker. Individuals are capable of operating a powered wheelchair and may also use a manual wheelchair. Limitations in mobility make adaptations necessary for participation in physical activities, including physical assistance or powered mobility.
  • Level V – Individual uses a manual wheelchair in all settings and is limited in his or her ability to keep head and trunk upright and control arms and legs. Assistive technology is needed to improve head alignment, seating, standing, and mobility, but the equipment does not compensate to full function. Physical assistance (from one or two people) or a mechanical lift is required for transfers. Powered mobility may be used with extensive adaptations for seating.  Limitations in mobility make adaptations necessary for participation in physical activities, including physical assistance or powered mobility.

Can a GMFCS Level Change Over Time?

A GMFCS level classification is expected to remain the same over the course of an individual’s life, even with intervention, therapy, and rehabilitation.

GMFCS levels provide information for parents and practitioners about the rehabilitative potential of each person and take in to account any expected improvement in gross motor performance over time. While this is the intended goal, it is not always the case.

Sometimes a new GMFCS level can be assigned if unanticipated improvement is obtained. Current research indicates, however, that GMFCS levels are quite stable after two years of age.

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Источник: https://www.abclawcenters.com/cerebral-palsy/gross-motor-function-classification-system/

Gross Motor Function Classification System – Expanded and Revised (GMFCS-ER)

Система класифікації великих моторних функцій при церебральних паралічах /Gross Motor Function Classification System for Cerepal Palsy (GMFCS)/

The revised and expanded version of the GMFCS (2007) builds upon the original version of the Gross Motor Function Classification System developed in 1997[1] to classify and describe the abilities of children and youth with cerebral palsy.

It has 4 age bands namely, less than 2 years, 2-4 years, 4-6 years and 6-12 years.

This newer version describes the movement ability of a child with cerebral palsy in one of five levels across five age ranges, with emphasis on the child’s functional ability and performance in different settings, particularly sitting, walking, and wheeled mobility.[2][3]

Intended Population

This classification system is intended for children and youth with CP from 0-18 years old. The GMFCS-ER contains five age groups, those being under 2 years, 2-4 years, 4-6 years, 6-12 years, and 12-18 years of age.

The GMFCS-ER is available in 22 languages and has been validated in many different countries.[3]

Method of Use

Physical therapists, occupational therapists, physicians, and other health service providers familiar with movement abilities of children with CP can use the GMFCS-ER. Parents of children with CP are able to classify their children using an adapted version known as the GMFCS Family Report Questionnaire.[3]

Health care providers familiar with a child can typically classify him or her within 5 minutes. Those unfamiliar with the child may require 15 to 20 minutes to complete as more observation is required.[3] Distinctions are usually quite clear and decisions about which level most closely represents a child's functional ability can be made quite quickly. However, distinctions between two adjacent levels can sometimes be very subtle, so more careful deliberation is required before a classification can be made.[3]

Generally, the higher the level the poorer the functional ability of the child. The theme of each level is as follows:

  • Level I: Walks without Limitations
  • Level II: Walks with Limitations
  • Level III: Walks Using a Hand-Held Mobility Device
  • Level IV: Self-Mobility with Limitations; May Use Powered Mobility
  • Level V: Transported in a Manual Wheelchair

Children classified as Level I perform the same activities as their peers but with some degree of difficulty in speed, balance, and coordination. In contrast, children classified as Level V have difficulty in most positions controlling their head/trunk posture and voluntary control of movement.[2]

[4]

Reliability

The inter-tester reliability between physiotherapists and parents has been determined to have an ICC value of 0.96 (95% CI, 0.95-0.97). This indicates that parents and clinicians can use the same terms and understand each other when determining the motor functional classification of their child if the GMFCS-ER is carefully administered.[5]

Validity

The GMFCS-ER has been evidenced with the content validity of 80% by consensus process in a Delphi study. The content has been validated for clarity and accuracy of the descriptions for each level and the distinctions between levels of 6 to 12 years and 12-18 years age bands.

The GMFCS-ER has utility for communication related to the condition between the various health professionals, therapists and parents etc. and also for clinical decision making, databases, registries and clinical research.

[6]The study published in the Europian journal of Physiotherapy “suggests that the GMFCS-E&R, if administered carefully, can be used as when comparing longitudinal data with the GMFCS.”[7]

Responsiveness

In a study conducted where 18 Physical therapists participated to evaluate the draft version of the 12-18 years age band and a Delphi survey where 30 health professionals from 7 countries participated to evaluate the revised 12-18 years and 6-12 years age band and consensus was gained by 80% of participants.It has been agreed as useful tool for classification of gross motor function.[6]

The GMFCS or the GMFCS-ER is a classification system.[8] It has been developed for the purpose of classification alone. It is just to determine the type of cerebral palsy. It is neither to be used as an outcome measure for checking the progression over time or after treatment nor to be used for conditions other than CP unless there is an evidenced research saying so for a condition.[9]

References

  1. ↑ 1.      Morris C. Development of the gross motor function classification system (1997). Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 2008 Jan 1;50(1):5-.https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1469-8749.2007.00005.x
  2. ↑ 2.0 2.1 Reid SM, Carlin JB, Reddihough DS. Using the Gross Motor Function Classification System to describe patterns of motor severity in cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 2011 Nov 1;53(11):1007-12.https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1469-8749.2011.04044.x
  3. ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 CanChild. GMFCS-ER Resources. Last Accessed July 17, 2016 from https://canchild.ca/en/resources/42-gross-motor-function-classification-system-expanded-revised-gmfcs-e-r
  4. ↑ Freedom Concepts. GMFCS for Cerebral Palsy. Available from: http://www..com/watch?v=5u2sLAznhnY [last accessed 28/08/16]
  5. ↑ Mutlu A, Kara OK, Gunel MK, Karahan S, Livanelioglu A. Agreement between parents and clinicians for the motor functional classification systems of children with cerebral palsy. Disabil Rehabil, 2011; 33(11): 927-32. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/09638288.2010.514645
  6. ↑ 6.0 6.1 Palisano RJ, Rosenbaum P, Bartlett D, Livingston MH. Content validity of the expanded and revised Gross Motor Function Classification System. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 2008 Oct 1;50(10):744-50. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1469-8749.2008.03089.x
  7. ↑ Gudmundsson C, Nordmark E. The agreement between GMFCS and GMFCS-E&R in children with cerebral palsy. The European Journal of Physiotherapy. 2013 Sep 1;15(3):127-33. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/21679169.2013.814072
  8. ↑ Oeffinger DJ, Tylkowski CM, Rayens MK, Davis RF, Gorton Iii GE, D'Astous J, Nicholson DE, Damiano DL, Abel MF, Bagley AM, Luan J. Gross Motor Function Classification System and outcome tools for assessing ambulatory cerebral palsy: a multicenter study. Developmental medicine and child neurology. 2004 May;46(5):311-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15132261
  9. ↑ Towns M, Rosenbaum P, Palisano R, Wright FV. Should the Gross Motor Function Classification System be used for children who do not have cerebral palsy?. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 2018 Feb;60(2):147-54. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29105760
  10. ↑ Gorter JW, Ketelaar M, Rosenbaum P, Helders PJ, Palisano R. Use of the GMFCS in infants with CP: the need for reclassification at age 2 years or older. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 2009 Jan 1;51(1):46-52. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1469-8749.2008.03117.x

Источник: https://www.physio-pedia.com/Gross_Motor_Function_Classification_System_-_Expanded_and_Revised_(GMFCS-ER)

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